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A diagnosis of the sociA 

disease of prejudice, with v/T 

helpful suggestions of 

how it should be 




Introduction by 

Joy Elmer Morgan 

PRICE 10 1 






by Sterling W. Brown, Ph.D. 

Assistant to President 
National Conference of Christians and Jews 

Introduction by 
Joy Elmer Morgan 

N E A Journal 

^ ..I s^ 


The National Conference of Christians and Jews 
381 Fourth Avenue 
New York 16, N. Y. 

19 4 7 


Unrvers% of Ts*as 


Introduction ........ 5 

The Kind of People We Are 7 

The Roots of Prejudice 13 

Principles of Good Intergroup Relations . . 19 

Developing the Strategy . . . . . . 27 

Rearing Children of Goodwill 35 

A Democracy of Cultures 43 

Where You Can Get Help ..... 49 

Appendix 55 





HIS admirable and most 
useful booklet is a skillful diagnosis of the social disease 
of prejudice. Dr. Brown describes the ailment and its 
symptoms, tells how people catch it, and spread its 
infection, and gives some helpful suggestions of how 
it should be treated and how it can be cured. Anyone 
who is really serious in his desire to root out this disease 
and to promote health in human relations, will be 
helped by this book to understand how to go about it. 
No one is competent to deal with physical ills who 
knows little about the human body or the resources 
of modern medicine. Such a one would be likely to do 
more harm than good. Similarly, in dealing with the 
life of the spirit, human emotions and attitudes, what 
makes men act as they do, the approach of ignorance 
is dangerous. This booklet is a primer, designed to in" 
form the reader of some of the basic truths about human 
nature at its best and worst which it is essential we 
should know if we want to establish brotherhood among 

By preparing ourselves as suggested in this booklet 
we can learn to play our part with skill. To release 
in all people the best that is in them and to open doors 
of free opportunity according to their merits must be 
the goal of tomorrow's civilisation. The disease of 
prejudice must be wiped out. In the campaign to 
control this evil each of us has an active part to play. 
Who can estimate the heights to which man may rise 
when the talents of all are dedicated to the advance 
of all! 



Journal of National Education Association 

Washington, D. C. 




\_) N the 21st of June, 1607, at Jamestown, colony of 
Virginia, the first Protestant service was held among 
permanent settlers in the New World. The minister, 
Robert Hunt, a "clergyman of persevering fortitude 
and modest worth," administered the sacrament ac- 
cording to the rites of the Anglican church. It was a 
humble beginning performed under a part of a ship's 
sail hung between trees, with a pulpit made of a bar 
of wood and worshippers seated on unhewed logs.* 

People of the Roman Catholic faith had already 
come to the western hemisphere in the Spanish and 
French colonies, and in addition natives of New Spain 
and Peru had been won to Catholic Christianity. The 
first Catholics to settle in the original thirteen colonies 
came to the colony of Maryland in 1634, established 

by Lord Baltimore, a Catholic layman. This colony was 
open to all religious groups, the first experiment in re' 
ligious liberty in America. The policy helped to at- 
tract people of many faiths, thus insuring economic 
success as had been anticipated by its practical-minded 
founder. On the first expedition, two earnest Jesuit 
priests were the only representatives of religion and 
they ministered faithfully to the settlers as well as to 
neighboring Indians. 

People of Jewish faith also came very early to Amer- 
ica. In August of 1654, Jacob Barsimson arrived in 
New Amsterdam on the ship Pereboom from Holland. 
He was the first known Jew to settle in America, al- 
though several had accompanied Columbus on his ex- 
pedition. In September of that same year, twenty-three 
Dutch- Jewish citizens arrived in America and settled in 
New Amsterdam. They soon established groups of 
worshippers and in 1728 the congregation erected its 
own building.** 


Thus from the very first, America was something 
more than a one-group, one-culture nation. Protes- 
tants, Catholics, and Jews came here to seek religious 
freedom and economic betterment. With the growth 
of immigration there came people from all three of the 
racial groups — Mongoloid, Caucasoid, and Negroid — 
and from many nations. So America began as a nation 
of immigrants from many lands and cultures, plus a 
native population of something like 850,000 Indians. 

Many early settlers came here to escape religious and 

* William Warren Sweet, The Story of Religions in America, 
page 11?. 

** Americans AH — A Short History of American Jews, page 9. 


political prejudices and persecutions. Strangely enough 
most of them denied this freedom to those of other 
faiths than their own. Roger Williams, pioneer ex- 
ponent of religious liberty, was expelled from Massa- 
chusetts. In every one of the thirteen colonies, at one 
time or another during the colonial period, some group 
had its religious rights taken away. Among those dis- 
criminated against or persecuted were Catholics, An- 
glicans, Quakers, Jews, Lutherans, Moravians, Presby- 
terians, Baptists, deists, atheists. 

Nine of the original thirteen colonies had state 
churches. Separation of church and state did not come 
until a later period, and every religious group made 
some contribution to the attainment of religious free- 
dom. The large number of religious groups made it im- 
perative that no one group be favored with official 
status. The insistence of George Washington and 
Thomas Jefferson that the republic should be free for 
all regardless of creed prevailed. 


These early Americans of so many religious and na- 
tionality groups thus began a new and daring experi- 
ment in democracy. As Franklin so truly .said, they had 
"to hang together to keep from hanging separately." 
When the liberty bell sounded forth its Old Testament 
message, with which it was inscribed, "Proclaim liberty 
to all the inhabitants of the land," "it brought into the 
world a revolution in human relationships. For the first 
time in history, democracy was being tried on a large 
scale. To be sure, the idea had its roots in the past, 
particularly in the Judeo-Christian tradition. It had 
even been established on a small scale in several parts 
of the world. But this new experiment based upon 

1 1 

the axion "that all men are created equal" had implicit 
within it the right of individuals and groups to be dif- 
ferent. This was something new under the sun — so new 
that the Founding Fathers hardly realized that the 
revolution which they started was to be a continuing 

As the new nation began to function, the main di' 
rection of development was democratic, particularly 
towards political democracy. This was made more ex- 
plicit and secure by the addition of the Bill of Rights 
to the Constitution. Economic and cultural democracy 
were aspects of the revolution destined to be delayed, 
as indeed they are not yet fully attained by Americans. 

There were many threats against this revolutionary 
attempt to establish the democratic way of life. There 
were counter revolutions from without which led to 
wars. There were threats from within which led to 
disunity and riots, and in one instance to civil war. 
Tensions between religious and nationality groups con' 
tinued to give rise to outbursts of bigotry and dis' 
crimination. Church buildings were burned, individuals 
were whipped, and whole groups were ostracized be' 
cause of their faith was different. 

Immigrant groups of earlier arrival began to dis' 
criminate against the newer immigrants. Feeling ran 
high against the "invasion" by the Irish who arrived 
in large numbers after the 1846 potato famine in Ire 
land. Riots broke out against them in Philadelphia, 
Boston, and New York. 


In 1850 the "Know Nothing" Party was formed to 
fight against immigration, particularly of Irish Cathc 

♦Everett R. Clinchy, Religion and Our Racial Tensions, page 29. 

lies. At a later time, in 1885, the A.P.A. swept across 
the nation with a fire of prejudice and discrimination 
against "foreigners." Every immigrant group was 
forced to run a gauntlet of discrimination. What some 
of our forefathers seemed to forget was that they were 
all immigrants or children of immigrants. No one really 
had a right to complain about "foreigners" unless it be 
the American Indians. But many had not yet learned 
that Americanism is not and never was a matter of 
race and ancestry. Americanism is a matter of mind 
and heart. 

And still the American people were for the most 
part .sound. They continued to sing and dream of a 
land of free peoples. Freedom was believed in so 
strongly that in 1918 they entered the World War 
chiefly motivated by the desire to "make the world safe 
for democracy." Following that war came a revival of 
the Ku Klux Klan which had flourished after the Civil 
War. Then several millions of American citizens were 
misled into this hate movement by "racketeers" who 
lined their pockets with money secured from the 

Contemporary America is still threatened by hate 
movements masquerading under the guise of patriotic 
or religious slogans. Discriminations continue in fla' 
grant violation of the principles of democracy. Hate 
directed against particular groups exists to an alarming 
extent, and tension is high between the major religious 
groups of the country. Recent polls indicate that some' 
thing like 13% of our population is anti'Semitic; 11% 
is violently anti'Negro; 7% think Roman Catholics are 
a threat to our country; and about 3% are anti' 

So the struggle for better intergroup relations exists 



as a continuing phase of the American Revolution. 
Having won World War II with the help of Allied 
Nations, against the greatest counter-revolution Amer- 
ican democracy has ever faced, we have yet to realise 
that "We the people" really means approximately 140 
millions of citizens who are: 
60 Million Anglo-Saxon 
15 Million Teutonic 
13 Million Negroes 
10 Million Irish 
Million Slavic 
Million Scandinavian 
Million Italian 




3 Million French 


Million each, Finn, Lithuanian, Greek 
1/3 Million Mexican, Fillipino, Chinese 
1/3 Million Indian 

And religiously we are: 
44 Million Protestant 
23 Million Roman Catholic 
5 Million Jewish 

1 Million Eastern Orthodox Catholics 
2/3 Million Mormon 
1/2 Million Christian Scientists 
1/10 Million Quakers 

This is the kind of people we are — a nation of min- 
orities— AMERICANS ALL. 

University of Tamos 
Austin, Texas 


Jq, VERY person is born into the "social climate" of a 
'"'primary group. 11 But every person is born free of 
prejudice. An individual develops personality gradu- 
ally but inevitably through interaction with parents, 
playmates, school, religious groups, and other mem- 
bers of his primary group. Thus we have the paradox 
of all persons having some prejudices even though 
every individual comes into the world prejudice-free. 

Some prejudices are harmless and many are both 
harmless and amusing (to others). Many of our per- 
sonal preferences are prejudices, "pre-judgments" made 
without knowledge or on the basis of misinformation. 
It should be pointed out that being "against" some- 




thing is not necessarily a prejudice. Opposition on the 
basis of facts to something injurious to personal or 
social living is not only proper but in the interest of 
truth and justice. But prejudice is a false assumption — 
a superstructure without a foundation. 

The most dangerous prejudices are those relating to 
groups. These false assumptions or generalisations 
about whole groups of people constitute increasingly 
one of the major social evils of American cultural life. 
The group antagonisms among the peoples of America 
(as well as among the peoples of the whole world) 
form the background out of which group prejudices 


In our culture every individual acquires from his 
own group the concepts of "our group" as against 
"their group." "Our ways," "our customs," "our hab- 
its," and "our people" are sanctioned as right and 
proper. The ways, customs, habits, and people of 
groups that differ are represented as strange, inferior. 

We misconceive the nature of prejudice if we think 
of it only as "Anti'This or Anti-That ." Contemporary 
anti-Semitism, although having its roots in the original 
antagonism between Christian and Jew, is more of a 
problem of "in-group" — "out-group" attitudes than of 
religious rivalry. In every culture the very process of 
growing up produces this tendency to intergroup strife. 
The conditions of adult living in our culture reinforce 
group prejudices at every turn. Therefore, any attempt 
to lessen intergroup prejudice should deal with the 
facts about every group involved, if it is to be effec- 

tive. Nothing less than a mass educational program to 
change the "tribal" mores of intergroup relations will 
accomplish this task. 


One of the primary causes of prejudice is ignorance. 
Hence the definition of prejudice as "being down on 
what youre not up on." Professor John Dewey says 
that people of one cultural group cannot appreciate 
those of another cultural group without knowing the 
aims, values, and purposes of the "other" group, plus 
the recognition that both groups hold some things in 
common. Indifference is the best that one may expect 
where lack of knowledge is the barrier between cul- 
tural groups. More often hostility and discrimination 
are the ruling attitudes. 

Protestants, Catholics, and Jews in America prac- 
tice "religious isolationism" to a considerable extent. 
Something resembling an "iron curtain" keeps them 
apart. Insofar as they remain walled off from one an- 
other, there is" slight chance for the removal of the 
"cultural civil war" that goes on between them. Ignor- 
ance, which is one of the bases of this group antago- 
nism, continues to beget social, economic, religious, 
and racial discriminations which are contrary to the 
Judeo-Christian tradition, to scientific knowledge, and 
to democratic ideal living. 

One of the most amazing phenomena in the cultural 
life of America is the intense hatreds which exist in 
many groups of people — hatreds for people of other 
groups whom they have often never known even 
casually. Thus anti-Semitism exists in areas where there 



are no Jews. The same is true of anti-Catholicism and 
anti-Protestantism . 

Perhaps the most fundamental "myth" of the whole 
gamut of "false picture" of different people is the 
idea that the things that count are transmitted in the 
blood stream and the germ-plasm. This biological myth 
has no place in scientific knowledge. It is the "grand- 
daddy" of all the racial myths. Actually it is an ex- 
treme and vicious expression of group isolationism. It 
assumes that the initial mistake is to get oneself born 
to the wrong parents. It should be noted that this ex- 
treme and dangerous form of the biological myth was 
not invented by German perversity. This is the central 
dogma in all group prejudice in America, in Europe, in 
India or elsewhere. Until it is completely outmoded 
from cultural tradition our way of life will be vulner' 
able to "racketeers" who play for personal gain upon 
the credulities of the ignorant and uninformed. 

There is no scientific evidence that the intellectual 
capacities of any one racial group are superior to those 
of any other. Each race has its individuals of low- 
grade intelligence, as well as its exceptionally brilliant 
minds. The bulk of the members of each falls between 
the two extremes. The apparent differences in the ca- 
pacities of various races are due to differences in en- 
vironment and training. When members of different 
races receive the same training, they show themselves 
to be very much the same in intellectual capacity. 


It is not true that prejudice is the result of ignorance 
alone. There are many well educated persons who have 
deep seated and vicious prejudices. Scientific evidence 

and facts are necessary if we are to eliminate prejudice 
and are essential if we are to build desirable attitudes; 
but they are not enough. Prejudice is rooted in the 
emotions. Intellectual analysis alone cannot root it out. 
Educators, parents, and religious leaders must plan 
meaningful situations and experiences to effect an emo- 
tional change in the attitude of our children. Social 
scientists agree that prejudice is based on fear, and 
they tell us that fear is based on insecurity. Therefore, 
a second cause of prejudice is hostility which is, in 
turn, rooted in frustration and insecurity. 

In childhood, frustration is sometimes caused by the 
very people and institutions which a child honors and 
loves. Parents, teachers, "the law" and the "state" 
sometimes block his desires. Feelings of hostility to- 
ward these usual objects of respect and affection give 
rise to a sense of guilt. By "identification" the child 
will develop "conscience" and thus the ways of those 
who are loved and honored attain approval. But if hos- 
tility arises it may not find an outlet, may remain 
damned up only to find expression at a later time in 
"scapegoating." In olden times primitive people loaded 
their sins on a goat which was then driven into the 
wilderness with outbursts of fiendish hate. This prac- 
tice of scapegoating is outmoded in modern life, but in 
its place is the transference of guilt and hostility to 
groups of people who are different. Every group in 
American culture has been at one time or another the 
victim of scapegoating. 

During the colonial period in every one of the orig- 
inal thirteen colonies some group was persecuted for its 
religious beliefs. In contemporary culture groups of 
people constituting a minority of a community are 
often made modern "scapegoats," recipients of subtle 



as well as blatent discriminations. This is true of Prot- 
estants as well as of Catholics and Jews. 

Prejudices which are most productive of hostile ac- 
tion, i.e., discrimination, arise out of ignorance and 
hostility. If there is knowledge rather than ignorance, 
we have judgment instead of prejudice; and if we 
have friendliness rather than hostility, the prejudice is 
of the harmless variety. 


Group prejudices are expressed in terms of "false 
imagines," pictures in the head. Thus we hear from 
the prejudiced the stereotypes: "Negroes are lazy, 
"Catholics are bigoted," "Jews are aggressive," "Prot- 
estants are godless." Although these generalisations are 
false, it is difficult for an individual to overcome ten- 
dencies toward discrimination as long as these 'false 
imagines" remain. They can be destroyed only by an 
educational process which involves vicarious and real 
pleasurable experiences with members of groups other 
than one's own. 

The social disease of prejudice is sinister. It issues in 
inequalities, exclusions, denials, and rejections: inequali- 
ties which keep justice from groups of people; exclu- 
sions which shut up whole groups of human beings so 
that they cannot share in the common life of America; 
denials which threaten and thwart personality develop- 
ment in hundreds of thousands of American children 
as well as adults; rejections which interfere with their 
changes in life, invade their integrity, and poison the 
springs of faith and hope. This is the social disease 
which every year affects more people than infantile 
paralysis, cancer, and tuberculosis, all combined. 



„ HE long-range goal of intergroup education is the 
promotion of amity and understanding among the 
diverse elements of our national life. This is the only 
basis upon which we can preserve and extend the 
democratic way of life. Intergroup relations are not 
vague abstractions. They constitute the very staff of 
life. Human life revolves around' human relations, 
good or bad. 

But Americans, generally, have been reluctant to 
put into practical use the knowledge which the scien- 
tists have made available in the field of group rela- 
tions. As the Swedish social scientist, Gunnar Myrdal, 
pointed out, there is no subject on which Americans 
feel more strongly and know less than they do on 


minority problems. Data on intergroup relations have 
been gathered by anthropologists, psychologists, his- 
torians, economists, semanticists, and sociologists. We 
cannot attempt here even a brief summary of these 
data. But we shall attempt a statement of the princi- 
pies which science has validated for the furtherance 
of intergroup relationships in our civilisation. 

There are three main sources for these principles 
which are the "big ideas 1 ' — the dominant elements in 
American culture. They are: (1) the Judeo-Christian 
tradition, (2) the democratic way of life, (3) science, 
both as a method and as a body of findings. 


The central thread in Western culture is the religi- 
ous teaching of Judaism and Christianity which affirms 
the supreme worth of human personality. Catholics, 
Protestants, and Jews differ on some points of theology, 
but they agree on others, among them the Brotherhood 
of Man under the Fatherhood of God. This idea en- 
lists the allegiance of a majority of our people; perhaps 
a majority even of those who have no formal identity 
with organised religion. 


A second source is the democratic commitment of 
the American people. This is the major over-arching 
tenet of the "American Creed." There is no statement 
so frequently nor so fervently quoted as Thomas Jef- 
ferson's "All men are created equal" even though some 
may add unconsciously "but some are created more 


equal than others." This "dream" of a richer and fuller 
life for all haunts Americans. It is embedded in the 
roots as well as the body and branches of our tree of 
Hfe. This is so true that even the demagogues clothe 
their evil prejudices and their nefarious intentions in 
the language of liberty and freedom. The democratic 
creed includes respect for individual personality. Even 
though treatment of minority groups may be despic- 
able, Americans have admiration for many people who 
belong to them and are willing to accept the individual 
"genius" though he be a member of a minority group. 
But it is the gap which exists between what we pro- 
fess and cherish in the democratic creed and that which 
we practice, that is goading so many into concern for 
the intergroup tensions which exist in our culture. 


Another source of sound principles of intergroup 
education is science. More and more Americans are 
turning to scientific inquiry and its results for the fac- 
tual foundation upon which to base belief and action. 
This is especially true of the large masses of middle 
class people. With a faith that sometimes borders on 
the religious we turn to science for answers to our 
problems, especially our technical problems. Now we 
are learning that science has made available data which 
testifies that riots arise out of "undeclared civil wars," 
and that our "stereotypes" reflect ignorance. Historians 
tell us that the civilisation which we like to call Amer- 
ican is a product of many influences. Psychologists 
point out the fallacies upon which prejudices are based. 
Anthropologists demonstrate that group isolationism is 
a bad habit with fascist implications. 





These three dominant elements of our culture — (1) 
religion, (-2) democracy, and (3) science — are the well 
springs out of which the following principles of inter 
group education have emerged. 

(1) Every Individual is Entitled to the Rights and 
Dignities which All of Us Desire for Ourselves, We 

do not grant these rights to others. They have them 
by virtue of being human beings and children of God, 
and even the simplest recognition of this principle dic- 
tates that the common decencies of life should be 
freely acknowledged as the rights of every person re' 
gardless of color, creed or national origin. There is no 
way of reconciling the use of such terms as "Jap," 
"Goyim," "Jig, 1 ^ "Dago," "Wop," "Yellow Belly," 
"Christ Killer," "Spic" or "Guinea," to mention but a 
few, with the spirit of "We the people." Even more 
difficult to reconcile are the discrimination practices 
reflected by signs reading "Christians only" or "Se- 
lected clientele" with the religious teaching that one 
must "love thy neighbor as thyself." 

(2) The Right to be Free Implies the Right to be 
Different. The founding of the American Republic was 
an act of revolution against the tyranny of empire 
which limited the thoughts and acts of people who 
desired free development. This "revolution" in human 
affairs was centered on political freedom. Only gradu- 
ally did Americans begin to realise that those groups 
which are small and different have the same rights as 
those that are large and powerful; that democracy is 
both a form of government and a philosophy for group 
living. Charles Evans Hughes said recently that when 
we lose the right to be different, we lose the right to 
be free. 


(3) An Understanding of the Aims, Customs, and 
Values of Groups Different from Our Own Creates 
Appreciation. Since the development of attitudes of 
respect for all human beings is the objective of inter 
group education, we must begin by learning and under- 
standing the cultural customs and traditions of those 
who differ from ourselves. Understanding follows 
knowledge. "Identification" through actual and vicari- 
ous experiences leads to the replacement of fear by a 
sense of confidence and security. The tendency to 
blame is replaced by a desire to comprehend. It is a 
sound principle of all relations between groups of peo- 
ple that "understanding" is the foundation stone of 
amity and cooperation. Understanding comes best from 
association of members of different cultural groups in 
doing things together. 

(4) All Groups Share Certain Common ^ Aims. 

Those who originally conceived of America as "a melt- 
ing pot" have long since learned that it is both un- 
realistic and undesirable to try to make every group 
conform to a particular pattern of culture. Such an 
idea of uniformity implies "cultural monism." The 
only method of attaining it is Fascism. It is desirable 
for all groups to have high standards, but we do not 
want any group to abandon its cultural customs unless 
they are incompatible with American ideals of democ- 
racy. This point of view, however, does not mean that 
there are no common aims or values which all groups 
share. Democracy is itself an ideal that constitutes a 
major commitment of Americans. There are also social 
and religious values which all groups share, such as 
good health and education, which in turn depend upon 
a sound economic order. It is as much to the advantage 


of Protestants and Catholics for America to have good 
housing as it is to Jews or to any other group. 

(5) Each Individual Should be Judged on the Basis 

of His Own Merits. One of the major mistakes of our 
culture is that we have developed the habit of "cate- 
goring" people. This cultural habit of generalising 
about religious, racial, and national groups is not only 
unscientific; it is contrary to the basic principles of 
both Judaism and Christianity which place great stress 
upon the worth of every individual. Furthermore, such 
"stereotyped" thinking about groups of people — "Jews 
are sensitive," "Catholics are narrow-minded," "Prot- 
estants are religiously lax" — are also violations of the 
democratic way of life. It is good sense, good religion, 
and good democracy for each individual to be judged 
on his own merits without reference to his race, creed 
or culture. 

(6) Civilization is a Product of All Groups. One of 

the fundamental reasons for the progress of so-called 
American culture is that we are great borrowers of 
culture. Our progress rests upon things we have been 
willing to take from other peoples. Even the early in- 
ventions such as the wheel, the level, and the alphabet, 
were borrowed by our European ancestors from the 
so-called backward people of Asia and Africa. The 
colonists brought with them all the inventions known 
in Europe. In this country they borrowed many things 
from the American Indians — many more than one usu- 
ally thinks. For what would happen to the American 
table if we removed turkey, cranberry sauce, potatoes, 
and corn? Yet all of these things, and more, we bor- 
rowed from the Indians. Immigrants from colonial 
times to the present have also brought their cultural 


gifts. Thus "American Civilisation" has been made 
possible through the contributions of individuals from 
all creeds and clans and the cooperative efforts of ail. / 
We are "imitators" and we happen to live at "the/ 
crossroads of the world" with an abundant supply of 
natural resources. Thus our civilisation has been the 
product of all peoples — Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and 
Negroid, whether they be Jew, Catholic or Protestant. 

(7) Democracy Cannot Work for Some Unless it 
Works for All. It has often been said that democracy 
is like a chain in that it is as strong or as weak as the 
links which go to make it up. All cultural groups in 
America have a spiritual relationship which makes jus- 
tice a right and not a privilege. "One nation indivisible 
with liberty and justice for all" means just what it 
says, "for all." For liberty is indivisible. Until every 
group in America (and this should be applied to the 
whole world), has the rights and dignities of the demo- 
cratic way of life, democracy is neither complete nor 
safe. We are all immigrants and descendants of im- 
migrants, a nation of many religions and races, a nation 
which rejects caste distinctions as incompatible with 
our democratic way of life. "E Pluribus Unum" is 
both our motto and our glory — out of many nations, 
one nation. A democracy must stick together or it will 
fall apart. Abraham Lincoln's inclusive statement that 
this country could not continue to "exist half slave and 
half free" needs now to be extended to cover the whole 

(8) Fundamentally All People Struggle for, Need 
and Want the Same Things. These basic desires are 


charted in the "Bill of Rights" prepared by the National 
Resource Planning Board; 

1. The right to work, usefully and creatively, 
through the productive years. 

2. The right to fair pay, adequate for the neces- 
sities and amenities of life ... in exchange for 
their services. 

3. The right to adequate food, clothing, shelter, 
and medical care. 

4. The right to security, with freedom from fear 
of old age, want, dependency, sickness, and 
the like. 

5. The right to live in a system of free enterprise. 

6. The right to come and go, to speak or be silent, 
free from the spyings of secret political police. 

7. The right to equality before the law, with 
equal access to justice in fact. 

8. The right to education for work, for citizen- 
ship, for personal growth and happiness. 

9. The right to rest, to recreation and adventure, 
to the enjoyment of life and an advancing 



**!.-*«..» ft ft» ft »ft» < 


I.N the field of intergroup relations, as in other areas 
of social engineering, there is no one method of ap- 
proach for the solution of intergroup problems, ine 
techniques and strategy to be used in any particular 
situation are dependent upon factors among which are 
the available leadership, the level of intergroup co- 
operation, and the specific problems involved. Inter- 
group education may, however, take place every day 
of the year in every institution of the community. Ex- 
cept in special training situations for leadership, it 
should not be a new course added to the curriculum of 
either the school or the church school. It is rather an 
emphasis upon and the practice of certain principles 
enumerated in the previous chapter. 


There are, however, some techniques which have 
proved effective in the experience of individuals, insti- 
tutions and organisations at work in the field. The fol' 
lowing brief of tested techniques should not be taken 
as a blueprint of action, but it will be suggestive of 
procedures which may be worked out in the light of 
particular situations. A note of warning should be 
stated in the form of a text: "Be ye wise as serpents 
and harmless as doves." 

(1) Become Informed about the Problems in this 

There are hundreds of books and pamphlets avail- 
able on the subject of intergroup relations. A selected 
bibliography will be found at the end of this text along 
with a listing of the national organizations which are 
working on this problem. Reading the non-technical 
literature in the field will help orient the beginner. One 
should begin by getting a good view of the whole field 
before attempting to initiate efforts for the ameliora- 
tion of special situations. One will do well to remember 
that any single aspect of the field should be considered 
within the framework of the whole range of human 
relations in a democracy. Separate consideration of any 
one issue, without reference to its total setting, may 
tend to exaggerate its importance and obscure the cen- 
tral principal of respect for human personality*. This 
does not preclude consideration of a specific problem 
such as Jewish-Christian relations, but it does mean 
that this aspect of the whole problem of intergroup 
relations should not be considered as either the Chris- 

* P 3 Unity Through Undrestanding, Board of Education of the 
City of New York, 1945-46. 


tian problem or the Jewish problem, but as a problem 
for every American. 

Another important factor in orienting oneself is as- 
sociation with others who are aware and concerned 
with intergroup tensions. This may be your next-door 
neighbor, your clergyman, the principal of the neigh- 
borhood school or any one of scores of business or 
professional folk of your community. Seek out others. 
This very act may be an initial step in bettering rela- 

Still another step in becoming acquainted in the field 
may be taken by getting in touch with organizations 
which specialize in the field. You will find many of the 
national organizations listed in Chapter VII. If there is a 
local unit of the National Conference of Christians and 
Jews in your city, get in touch with its office. Make a 
call on its director and make known your interest. Re- 
quests for literature may be directed either to the local 
or national office of such organizations. And, if at all 
possible, identify yourself as a participating member of 
this and other movements for civic unity. 

(2) Set a Good Example. 

Every American should turn the spotlight upon his 
own attitude and actions to examine his own relation 
to those who differ from him religiously, nationally, or 
culturally. Have we imputed ulterior motives to them 
while assuming a ''holier than thou" attitude? Are we 
guilty of the use of belittling terms which are insulting 
to those who happen to belong to a religion different 
from our own? Are we careless in the use of jokes that 
perpetuate false labels about groups? What's your real 
score? (See test in Appendix.) 


One may well be reminded of the great English 
philosopher who noted that the person who states that 
he has no prejudice thereby reveals one of the greatest 
of prejudices. Furthermore, verbalisation alone is not 
a substitute for action. Thinking is in itself a form of 
action but intelligent discussion is a necessary prelude 
to decisive action, not a substitute for it. 

(3) Know Your Neighbors. 

A few months ago a friend of mine was going by 
train across several states. At a small station his train 
was delayed for a few minutes and he strolled over to 
the depot where a villager was resting in the shade. 
Said my friend, "What community is this?" There was 
no answer from the villager, only a blank stare. "I say, 
what community is this?" my friend repeated. "Well," 
said the man, "if you will quit using them big words 
and talk American, 111 answer you." My friend was 
quite pulled for a moment, then said, "Oh, you mean 
the word 'community? 1 That is a simple word. It means 
a place where people are friendly and have common 
interests." Whereupon the villager answered, "Well, 
Mister, this ain't a community. It is just a place." 

Too many of our American towns and neighbor- 
hoods are "places" rather than communities. What 
about the one in which you live? Who are the people 
in your community? What are their religious and na- 
tionality backgrounds? Do you understand their religi- 
ous customs and traditions? Are there groups in your 
community that are discriminated against by other 
people? How many people of a religion different from 
your own have you had in your home? A good test of 
whether you "know your neighbor" is whether you 
have friends in all the groups different from your own. 


(4) Deal First with Local Manageable Problems. 

We should take a lesson from Hitler's strategy and 
concentrate our efforts on the weakest link in the chain 
of discrimination which makes prisoners of some min- 
ority groups in America. Select a problem that you 
have a good chance to solve. It may be the prejudiced 
attitude of a member of your own group or an "un- 
written rule" of your civic club which bars members 
of certain religious groups. Don't try to change human 
nature on a world scale. The job is too big for you and 
your friends. Besides there are local problems which 
need your assistance. Some religious or racial groups 
are constantly slighted when a "representative" group 
of religious leaders is chosen to cooperate on a civic 
project. Some quiet and tactful work on your part 
may solve the problem. 

If there are un-American groups, such as the Klan, 
attempting to foment hate and to organise in your 
community, mobilise the real leadership of the com- 
munity from school,, church, civic organisations^ the 
mayor's office, and make the efforts of these "hate 
hucksters" useless. Don't call a mass protest meeting. 
Get all the leaders of the community to work through 
their own organisations. A community can actually be 
immunised against "hate-mongers" and "hate peddlers" 
who seek to divide and conquer, if leadership is mo- 

(5) Work with Others. 

Although an individual can be an effective influence 
in developing better intergroup relations, this problem 
is too big in each community for one person. Let it not 
be said that "the children of Beelsebub are wiser in 


their generation than the children of light." Join forces 
with others in your community or neighborhood who 
are interested. You will find such institutions as public 
libraries, social studies departments of high schools, 
churches, and many civic organisations ready and wiU' 
ing to cooperate. Make use of the existing organisations 
and institutions before attempting to organise new 
ones. If a new organisation is necessary, affiliate with 
a national organisation which works through existing 
channels rather than attempt to create new social ma' 

Small study and discussion groups can be effective 
without the necessity of spending time and effort on 
organisational procedures. Protestants, Catholics, and 
Jews will be happy to come to your home for an eve- 
ning of free exchange of ideas on subjects of common 
concern. And the chances are good that others will 
invite you into their homes in return. This is a good 
social substitute for the "cracker barrel" discussion 
which played so significant a role among our fore- 
fathers who built this democracy. "Agreeing to dis- 
agree agreeably 1 ' is not difficult in the sociability of a 
home over a cup of tea or coffee. It's a good American 

(6) Drive Home the Facts. 

Although one may wish to choose the exact moment 
at which to speak out against prejudice and bigotry, 
the importance of pounding home the facts can hardly 
be over-emphasised. Explode the myths which are the 
stock and trade of the prejudiced. Smash the stereo- 
types with scientific facts from authoritative sources. 
And never let slander be put forth as truth. You will 
want to choose your method of presentation, but drive 


home the facts. Discover and document the cost of 
prejudice in energy, money and moral integrity, espe- 
cially to the holder of prejudice. This is the appeal to 
self-interest and it is often the only language that your 
opponents understand. Prejudice is bad for a commu- 
nity — bad for business, for churches, for schools, for 
community life. 

To those who are well-intentioned, but misled by 
rumors and rationalisations, use the "shock treatment." 
Point out the inconsistency of their attitudes with their 
professed religion. Most Americans who are prejudiced 
are nonetheless half -conscious of our tradition of fair 
play and of the requirements of democratic decency. It 
is latent bigotry in people who are not consciously 
fascists that offers fertile soil to the intolerant peddler 
of hate. Don't let him gain ground with such Ameri- 
cans. Appeal to their sense of fair play and democratic 
decency to line up on the side of truth and justice.* 

You have much of the press, most of the churches, 
many opinion leaders including teachers, politicians 
and writers on your side. Join forces with them to 
drive home the facts. Our democracy was founded on 
faith in the common decency of the common man if 
he has opportunity to know the facts. Our religious- 
democratic-scientific ethos will win — with your help, 
to devise the social machinery necessary- to mobilise 
the forces of American brotherhood. 

A great task in intergroup education confronts the 
teachers, ministers, parents, and community leaders of 
America. But the development of unity, cooperation, 
and understanding between the religious and cultural 

* Gordon W. Allport, "The Bigot In Our Midst," The Common- 
weal, October 6, 1944. 


groups of our country is a high privilege worthy of 
our best efforts.- We hold at this penultimate moment 
in history the opportunity to assist in the elimination 
of the contradictions in our culture and the develop' 
ment of young Americans who can live and build har- 
moniously in this nation — a nation which was settled 
and built by people of all creeds, races, and nationali- 



JT may well be that the training that American 
children of today receive in intergroup relations will 
determine the success or failure of current efforts to 
unite the world for the preservation of peace. The up' 
swing of world opinion in the direction of a united 
world does to a large extent depend upon the attitude 
of the United States. And the ability of global-thinking 
Americans to marshal resources for permanent support 
of and participation in the United Nations movement 
will depend on the attitudes of our children toward 
v. the various cultural groups in our own country. 

Children who develop prejudices toward those who 
differ from themselves may be counted on to become 
adults who will hold even more intense hatreds for 


peoples of other countries. Those who learn to dis- 
criminate against Orientals during elementary and high 
school experiences will surely become adults who will 
hold slight regard for the interests of the millions of 
Mongoloid peoples of the world. Those who develop 
hatreds for American citizens who happen to be col' 
ored cannot be expected to cooperate as adults with 
the peoples of Africa and India. 

If this be true, it is imperative that home, church, 
school, and community in America give more attention 
to the intercultural education of youth. 


One of the important factors in the development of 
children of goodwill is the parent-child relationship. If 
the parent is unable to see the problems of the child 
through his eyes and consequently forces him continu' 
ally into attitudes of anger and emotional hostility, he 
will become the type that discriminates, hates, and at' 
tacks. The children of insecurity become the adults of 

The parent who knows himself, who is able in 
daily action and attitude to approximate the ideals 
which he cherishes, will be able to develop good inter 
group attitudes in his children. Homes in which 
friends of many racial and religious groups find a 
welcome constitute good training centers for children 
who will learn to judge individuals on the basis of 
their personal worth without reference to creed or 
color. On the other hand, the home in which false, 
stereotyped ideas of certain groups are common will 
produce children of ill will. 


Some practical aids every home should have include 
attractively illustrated literature of whatever religion 
the family holds; the book One God and the Ways 
We Worship Him by Florence Fitch; When Children 
Ask by Marguerite Harmon Bro; and This Is the 
World by Josephine Pease. 

But even more important than these material aids is 
the parent's ability to discuss differences of various 
American people in a fair and unbiased way. Suppose 
Jimmie comes home and says, "Mother, Tommie says 
that Sammie is a Jew. What is a Jew, Mommie?" If 
the mother hesitates and then says, "Well, Jews are 
different," she has planted an emotional attitude which 
places Sammie outside Jimmie's group. If she sympa- 
thetically explains that Sammie's people hold to the 
Jewish faith and that there are many things in its 
traditions which are held in common with Christianity 
as well as some things that are different, she has laid 
the foundation stone of good intercultural training. 


The ideals of true tolerance and brotherhood are 
central in every religious group of any consequence in 
America. Church school and synagogue teachers, there- 
fore, hold not only an opportunity for the development 
of good intergroup attitudes in children, but a mandate 
to do so. Children sense the real attitudes of their 
teachers and no amount of false piety can trick them. 
The first requirement of the religious teacher is that 
her faith be held sincerely and honestly. For attitudes 
of goodwill are often "caught" rather than "taught." 

With the aid of pictures, toys, and books suitable 


for the age of children involved, the teacher of religion 
may condition her charges for healthy attitudes to- 
ward those who differ in race, creed, or national origin. 
This conditioning can be made especially effective if 
the group is made up of children from various back' 
grounds. If such is not the case, the teacher should 
see that opportunity is created for intergroup experi- 
ences. As children develop religious maturity, they 
will grow in a deepening appreciation of their own 
faith as well as understanding of others. This can be 
accomplished without in any sense weakening or 
"watering down 11 the child's own faith. 

With the progress of the child from the nursery and 
pre-school departments of the church school into the 
older age-groups, a core of religious ideas may be de- 
veloped, and his religion will become a way of life. 
This is the natural result if the earlier experiences in 
the religious school have been happy and positive. This 
involves equipment and materials which are of high 
quality, but not necessarily expensive. Attitudes of 
brotherly love should be as central in the child's re- 
ligion as those of the love of God. 


f By the time the child has entered the first grade he 
has to some extent become aware of differences. His 
attitude toward these differences having been deter- 
mined primarily by the home environment and sup- 
plemented by the church school, the child now finds 
himself in a more complicated world. It is important 
for the child not only to recognise that differences exist 
but to realise that there are common values which 


over-arch them. This is the central thesis of democracy 
and if the child fails to understand and cherish human 
values, he will find constant frustration in "bumping" 
into the rights of others. 

Good intercultural practices can be developed in the 
total life of the school. There are areas of the curricu- 
lum where courses on the peoples of our world, a cul- 
tural history of America, or any one of many other 
possible courses of content might and have been of- 
fered. But intercultural education should be an integral 
phase of the total educational process. ) 

Most teachers need training in this area. It is to be 
hoped that the experiments which are being sponsored 
by the National Conference of Christians and Jews 
through the American Council on Education will be 
expanded and will lead the forces of education to do 
a better job in this phase of education for democratic 
living. The institutes and workshops which are being 
held represent other projects which will lead to better 
leadership and practice among teachers. 

The opportunities which exist for developing chil- 
dren with good intergroup attitudes exist in every 
school situation. Since one of the best ways of develop- 
ing these attitudes is through participation in activities 
without reference to differences, the classroom and 
school community experiences should be resources. 
Among others the home room organised on a demo- 
cratic basis, intramural games, and activities of intel- 
lectual competition may become important assets in 
the development of children who will be able to live 
democratically. Assembly programs, plays, pageants, 
concerts, all have their place in developing children 
of goodwill./ 


One midwestern school last year had a priest, minister 
and rabbi for the same assembly program, but not one 
of the speakers spoke about his particular faith. The 
minister discussed the home life of the Japanese peo- 
ple. The rabbi told of his interest in poetry and quoted 
at length some of his favorite poems. And the priest 
spoke of his interest in various forms of art. 

Other resources for the development of real toler- 
ance and understanding among children of various 
backgrounds include the school library, movies, social 
museums, and recordings. One school in the Middle 
West sponsored a "cultural fair" which placed on dis- 
play the "manyness" of America and dramatized the 
common bonds which bind people together in a democ- 
racy. The whole town turned out to get an inter- 
cultural experience. 

All these projects and many others have been used 
successfully in American schools. With the coming of 
better texts, written without bias against race, creed or 
national origin, and with better in-service training of 
teachers, we may expect an even greater contribution 
through the schools to the preservation and extension 
of democracy. 


In a very real sense the family is a small community 
within itself. Within the experiences of the family 
group a child should be introduced to objects and peo- 
ple of the wider community. The milkman, the delivery 
boy, the grocery clerk, all offer opportunity for par- 
ents to guide the growth of their children into a 
mature and democratic point of view. 


Children who begin participation in the wider com- 
munity through a nursery school experience should 
find themselves in a group in which there are other 
children of various religious and cultural groups. If this 
is not true, the parents should provide opportunity for 
their children to associate on an equal basis with those 
of different backgrounds. 

Older children may share the spirit of their com- 
munity through participation in Boy Scouts, Girl 
Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, and playground groups, as 
well as through school and church groups. The holi- 
days offer excellent opportunity for parents to organ- 
ise for community songs, festivals or dances. For na- 
tionally observed occasions, like "I Am An American 
Day" and "Brotherhood Week," materials are available 
from sponsoring agencies. 

Parents who participate in community efforts for a 
better America are receiving the best possible training 
for rearing children of goodwill. They can work for 
legal protection of minority people against discrimina- 
tion in employment and for a higher level of dignity 
and respect for human personality. Voluntary work 
with community agencies which lift the social and 
economic level of family living is a direct contribution 
to the rearing of democratic children. People of dif- 
ferent faiths who live side by side for years without 
the practice of neighborliness are missing an oppor- 
tunity for warm friendliness and mutual respect which 
form the touchstone of the American way of life. 

And one should not forget that our children will 
increasingly need to develop into citizens of the world. 
With the growing interdependence of the peoples of 
the world there must be a realisation of the common 


humanity of all peoples. Perhaps emphasis should be 
laid on the likeness of people, but we need not blind 
our children to the differences which enrich rather 
than weaken world civilisation. Children respond fav- 
orably to material illustrating the different ways of 
living of the various peoples of the world. Textbooks, 
pictures, stories, and objects of art are excellent aids in 
intercultural education, but the best learning situation 
is one in which children experience pleasurable occa- 
sions among good representatives of other groups. Chil- 
dren should be made to feel that toleration is not 
enough. Life will be richer and fuller if the people of 
all races, religions, and nationalities can work together 
sympathetically and cooperatively for the common 
good of all. As an old Chinese proverb says: 

If there is righteousness in the heart, 
There will be beauty in the character. 
If there is beauty in the character, 
There will be harmony in the home. 
If there is harmony in the home, 
There will be order in the nation. 
If there is order in the nation, 
There will be peace in the world. 



MERICAN culture is plagued by the social dis- 
ease of prejudice which is more expensive, affects far 
more people, and is more threatening both to the 
unity of the nation and the well-being of communities 
than any physical malady. This social disease, with all 
of its resulting frustrations, maladjustments, fears, sus- 
picions, and discriminations arising between groups, 
constitutes one of America's major social problems. 
The real problem is not that of group differences but 
our reaction to those differences. It is not a matter of 
conflict between groups. In all dynamic societies men 
and groups are competing, struggling, seeking to get 
ahead. The real danger lies in the undemocratic attitude 


we hold and the unequal treatment we accord to those 
who are different. 


This is a peculiarly American problem. We have 
here one of the most complex cultural scenes in the 
world. Although settled from the first by individuals 
and groups of many races, creeds, and nationalities, 
prejudice has been increasing, not decreasing. We have 
now reached the stage in our development where we 
must create the social machinery for lifting our cul' 
ture to a new level of group relationships. Ours is a 
multi'group society and we have not created the social 
machinery for the ordering of life in a nation with a 
plural number of cultures. From the beginning of our 
history we have been primarily concerned with the 
exploitation of a land of unlimited possibilities. We 
have been accumulating wealth and supplying the 
world with raw materials. We have learned to work, 
to build enterprises, to invent machines, to develop 
natural and physical science in the application to in' 
dustrial development. But we have been little con" 
cerned about civic betterment, group relations, or the 
fundamental question of clashes between cultural 
groups. We have struggled with nature, not with hu- 
man nature. 



Consequently, our patterns of social machinery are 
still those of the horse and buggy age. We have had 
the view that if one disliked his neighbor, he could 
move on further west, or "make it so hot" for the 


neighbor that he would move on. The problems of 
intergroup relations were things that we did not under' 
stand, did not have to cope with because we could 
move away and leave them. This is what we did. But 
we can't do it any longer. For the past half century 
we have been living next door to the problem, hoping 
that it would solve itself. It has grown steadily worse 
until now it threatens our whole way of life. 

It is not a matter of political ideology or political 
organisation. If we lived up. to our constitution and 
enforced the laws we have, most aspects of the prob' 
lem Would not exist. The difficulty is that codes and 
constitutions do not control men's thoughts, attitudes, 
and social actions. Therefore, we have developed a vast 
"split" between what our ideals, our law and political 
ideology set forth and what we think and practice in 
social relations. It is not a matter of one particular 
group. The trouble lies between all groups of our na' 
tion. This calls for a better ordering of group relations. 
And since this entails a change in emotional attitudes, 
it is primarily an educational task. 


It should be noted that the greatest group of foreign' 
born poured into the country at the time when our 
"cultural lag" was most accentuated. At the very time 
when we had come to the "end of the frontier" and 
were being forced to solve our social problems rather 
than run away from them, the largest groups of immi' 
grants were struggling to make adjustment to our cul' 
tural life. There was a theory about what should take 
place. The general concept was that new groups of 
people coming into America should rapidly drop their 


past traditions and become completely changed into 
the dominant American pattern of life. There was no 
expectation that our culture might be changed, might 
be benefitted by new streams that were added. It was 
the "melting-pot' 11 theory which was made popular by 
a drama by Zangwill, who had one of his characters 

"Now understand that America is God's Crucible, 
the great Melting Pot where all the races of Europe 
are melting and reforming! . . . the great Alchemist 
melts and fuses them with his purging flame! Here 
shall they all unite to build the Republic of Man and 
the Kingdom of God." 

This theory was the motivating ideology behind the 
Americanization movement which began at about the 
opening of the twentieth century and was widely pub" 
licked and accepted. Both education and religion large' 
ly accepted and promoted this movement. 

It did not work. Groups of people who came here to 
make their homes brought with them their religion, 
customs, traditions, and modes of behaviour. They con- 
tinued to live by them because they preferred them or 
because they were matters of conscience, and because 
they were reluctant to take on the new ways of Amer- 
ican culture which was itself made up of many groups. 
They held aloof from American social life, continuing 
their cultural practices in isolation. Americans of the 
majority did not want them and in turn the minorities 
did not desire to be changed. The melting pot theory 
failed to work. It led to disintegration of some groups; 
with others it motivated a tightening of group tradi- 
tions as a defensive technique. Acculturation did not 
take place because groups failed to melt. The breaking 
of inherited traditions often led to crime and pauper- 


ism; reaction against assimilation led to extreme forms 
of ethnocentrism. 


A new theory has been emerging which is more 
promising. It takes account of the vital needs of min- 
ority groups and, more important, seeks to provide for 
the preservation of the vital cultural traditions of these 
groups whose "human natures" were the products of 
centuries of civilization and culture different from our 
own. Still more important, it recognizes the most 
fundamental elements of the American dream: that 
each group has distinctive values to add to our way of 
life and that all groups have a "stake" in democracy. 
This theory, commonly known as "cultural democracy" 
assumes that no one culture contains all favorable ele- 
ments, and that America will be richer and stronger in 
its cultural make-up if the best that each group has 
brought is conserved as a part of the total cultural life 
of the nation. If this theory is correct, and science is 
daily bringing forth data which indicate that it is, 
then the problem of group adjustment becomes both 
that of preserving cultural traits as long as they are 
found useful and do not conflict with the geperal wel- 
fare; and of creating pride in their customs, mores, and 
folkways on the part of minority groups together with 
loyalty to and action in accordance with the over-all 
values of American life. Thus, the educational process 
is one of the preservation of inherited values com- 
patible with the democratic way of life and the con- 
tinuous building of all cultures into original patterns 
of the best American traditions. 

The implications of this theory are many. The first 


is that of eliminating prejudice. This calls for each 
group to recognise the values inherent in the culture 
of the others. The question naturally arises as to 
whether these different streams of culture will be per- 
manently preserved in our civilization? Cultural democ- 
racy does not imply that special cultures will remain 
unchanged for all time. Acculturation will, it is hoped, 
lead to common action in areas of common concern. 
But uniformity is not desired. As has been previously 
mentioned "cultural monism" can be achieved only by 
fascism which carries the seeds of its own destruction. 


The creation of new social machinery should make 
possible a new and significant development in Ameri- 
can life. Intergroup education is the method. The form 
of the social machinery is not clear at this time. But it 
seems clear that we stand on the threshold of a new 
movement of brotherhood — an "American Brother- 
hood" — in which a growing number of Americans will 
hold membership on the basis of individual merit and 
worth and the dedication to and practice of cultural 
democracy. This will call for a new charter, a charter 
of both individual relations and of group relations. Out 
of this movement for the creation of the American 
Brotherhood will emerge the sense of belonging to the 
"Total Team." 



^-£u/ c 



j . 7 5 »- ai«*r 


HERE are several hundred organisations in Amer- 
ica actively engaged in some phase of intergroup educa- 
tion and activity. There are hundreds more which 
make some contribution to the field but whose main 
purpose lies in some other area. There are approxi- 
mately 120 organisations which are national in scope, 
35 are state, and there are 26 national organisations 
which may be called social action groups. These groups 
are designed to protect civil liberties, to influence legis- 
lation, or to achieve other social objectives. Fifteen 
groups are identified with labor. Thirty organisations 
are connected with religious groups. About a half 
dosen are youth organisations. Five are philanthropic 
enterprises. About twenty organisations are concerned 


with refugees, immigrants and particular cultural or 
nationality groups. At least a dozen agencies of the 
government are active in this field. In addition, three 
states — New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts— have 
legal machinery for the protection of citizens against 
discrimination, prosecution of offenders, and the initia- 
tion of educational efforts to eliminate undemocratic 
discrimination because of race, creed or color. 

The following annotated list of the dozen most 
prominent organizations in the field of intergroup edu' 
cation should be helpful to those desiring information, 
assistance, and cooperation in furthering cultural de- 

(1) American Council on Race Relations 

32 West Randolph Street, Chicago 1, Illinois 

Provides community consultation, planning, and as' 
sistance. Serves as a clearing house on race relations 
materials, issues original materials, and initiates activity 
designed to achieve "full participation of all citizens in 
all aspects of American life: equal rights and equal 

(2) American Jewish Committee 

386 Fourth Avenue, New York 16, N. Y. 

The Committee works to combat anti-Semitism and 
promote pro-democratic ideas and interfaith relation' 
ships. This is done through printed matter, through 
activities in support of progressive legislation designed 
to counteract manifestations of anti-minority and anti- 
liberal feelings, through scientific research probing the 
causes and effects of anti-Semitism, and through sup- 
port of intercultural and intergroup educational pro- 



(3) American Jewish Congress 

1834 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

The American Jewish Congress is a confederation 
of affiliated national and local organizations and indi- 
vidual members, organized into local chapters. Its Com- 
mission on Community Interrelations undertakes a pro- 
gram to determine the real causes of intergroup tension 
and conflict and to do something about overcoming 
such hostilities. A staff of specialists in "action re- 
search" makes sampling studies involving specific cases 
of group conflict and, in cooperation with all possible 
agencies and individuals in the local community, seeks 
to remove the hostilities. 

(4) Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith 

100 North LaSalie Street, Chicago, Illinois 

The League was formed to eliminate defamation of 
the Jews and to counteract un-American and anti- 
Semitic propaganda through direct effort and a broad 
educational program. It supplies public speakers, and 
makes use of all media of public information to expose 
and counteract attempts to corrupt the public mind. It 
also supplies pamphlets, posters, leaflets. Its research 
department supplies accurate data and statistics. It 
maintains offices in the larger cities. 

(5) Bureau for Intercultural Education 

119 West 57th Street, New York 19, N. Y. 

The Bureau works principally with school systems 
in the development of long-term intercultural programs. 
It gives consultive service to organizations and institu- 
tions, publishes curriculum materials as well as pamph- 
lets and articles, sponsors intercultural workshops in 


cooperation with several universities, and furnishes 
speakers for conventions, educational gatherings, and 
teachers groups. 

(6) Catholic Interracial Council 

20 Vesey Street, New York, N. Y. 

The Catholic Interracial Council has branches in 
Detroit, Boston, Kansas City, and Los Angeles. It is 
not an official agency of the Roman Catholic Church. 
The Council publishes materials, sponsors lecture 
courses, issues monthly The Interracial Review, and 
organises collegiate units which work for interracial 
justice. The purpose of the Council is "to promote in 
every practicable way, relations between the races based 
on Christian principles of interracial justice and charity 
which uphold the God-given dignity and destiny of 
every person." 

(7) Committee of Catholics for Human Rights 

1775 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Their program is: (1) Issuance of "Catholic Voices 
Against Race Hatred" to reach the Catholic Church, 
school and lay organisations in the United States. This 
consists of declarations by leading Catholics against 
anti-Semitism and bigotry; (2) Regular issuance of 
pamphlets and newsletters containing genuine Catholic 
teaching against all forms of racial and religious bigotry. 

(8) Council Against Intolerance in America 

17 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 

Its purpose is to combat prejudice and to develop 
democratic relations among all groups in America. It 



publishes posters, maps, holds conferences, and pub- 
lishes a monthly educational guide, American Unity. 

(9) Department of Race Relations of the Federal 

Council of the Churches of Christ in America 

297 Fourth Avenue, New York 10, N. Y. 

The Department of Race Relations is one of eight 
departments and seven commissions of the Federal 
Council, a federated national body representing twenty- 
five major Protestant groups. The purpose of the de- 
partment is to enlist, instruct, and inspire church lead- 
ers to practice the principles of brotherhood implicit in 
Christianity. It promotes the observance of Race Rela- 
tions Sunday, holds interracial clinics, furnishes con- 
sultive service, and cooperates with religious, social and 
civic agencies in seeking fair legislation and administra- 
tion of laws and equitable civic rights for all groups. 
"Interracial News Service" is a bi-monthly publication 
which contains information on interracial questions. 

(10) National Conference of Christians and Jews 

381 Fourth Avenue, New York 16, N. Y. 

The oldest and largest intergroup educational agency 
in America. Its principal objectives are to promote jus- 
tice, amity, understanding and cooperation among Prot- 
estants, Catholics and Jews, and to lessen and eliminate 
intergroup strife. It maintains three national commis- 
sions for work with national religious, educational and 
civic organisations, and operates Religious News Ser- 
vice. The Conference has offices in the principal cities 
of America. It furnishes speakers, materials, films, pos- 
ters, and publishes "Conference," a quarterly publica- 
tion of trends and news of interfaith and intergroup 


activity. It also sponsors teachers 1 workshops, insti' 
tutes, and maintains through the American Council on 
Education a series of local and national projects in 
American schools. The Conference sponsors American 
Brotherhood Week and Religious Book Week. 

(11) National Urban League 

1133 Broadway, New York 10, N. Y. 

The National Urban League has as its chief purpose 
the promotion of the welfare of the Negro population 
in urban centers. There are more than fifty local units 
which are entirely autonomous. Making use of social 
work techniques the League provides a program built 
around the needs of housing, employment, health, and 
community organisation. Consultative services and spe' 
cial materials available for use in the classroom, church, 
school or other institutions interested in educational 
programs concerning Negro life. The League publishes 
"Opportunity," a journal of Negro life. 

(12) Southern Regional Council 

63 Auburn Avenue, Atlanta 3, Georgia 

The Southern Regional Council takes as its objective 
"the improvement of economic, civic, and racial con' 
ditions in the South." It is bi-racial in its membership 
and staff but its activities extend beyond interracial 
problems. Seeking to ameliorate the problems of the 
South, the Council initiates research, issues pamphlets, 
and offers consultative services to public and private 
agencies. Other organisations with similar objectives 
receive close cooperation from the Council. 





TURAL EDUCATION. By C. O. Arndt (Editor). 
Valuable case studies in inter cultural education. Sim' 
pie, fully detailed accounts of practices which have 
proven their worth. A wide variety of in-school and 
community experiences for the educator. Fourteenth 
Yearbook, Department of Supervisors and Directors of 
Instruction of the National Education Association, 
Washington, D. C. 1942. 385 pp. $2.00. 


Gunnar Myrdal. 

This exhaustive two-volume study by a Swedish 
scientist of the economic, social, political, and educa- 
tional problems of the Negroes in America explores 
the situation with scientific detachment. 


Mr. McWilliams writes a penetrating book about 
the Negro, the Japanese, the Hawaiian, the Filipino. 
He does not sugarcoat his opinion that our treatment 
of these minorities is lacking in American ideals. 

Taba and William Van Til (Editors). 


The Sixteenth Yearbook of The National Council 
For the Social Studies. An analytical survey of inter- 
group education said by many to be the best book in 
the field. National Education Association. 1945. 

HOME FESTIVAL. By Rachel Davis-Debois. 

A report of actual experiences in the use of the 
Neighborhood-Home Festival. An analysis of problems 
involved in understanding the psychology of intergroup 
relationships. Source materials on seasonal and patriotic 
festivals. Harper 6? Brothers. 1943. 182 pp. $1.75. 

NEIGHBORS. By Mildred Moody Eakin. 

A practical guide book for church school leaders in 
dealing with Christian- Jewish relationships, with espe- 
cial emphasis upon the recognition of the place which 
Jewish experience has had in the development of Chris- 
tianity. The Macmillan Company. 1944. 


A fine treatise on the effects, causes, and cures of 
prejudice. Should be read by all young adults and 
their parents. William Morrow & Company, Inc. 


ICAN SCHOOLS. By Stewart G. Cole and William 
E. Vickery. 

An introduction to the problem of the responsibility 
of the schools for improved relations with members of 


cultural groups in America. A major insight is the ad' 
vocacy of cultural democracy rather than the melting' 
pot theory. Harper & Brothers. 1943. 215 pp. (paper) 
$1.00, (cloth) $2.00. 

SCHOOLS. By Theodore Brameld. 

A study of administrative practices in seven school 
systems, with especial reference to the way they ap' 
proach problems of intercultural relations. Harper 5? 
Brothers. 1946. (paper) $1.50. 

ONE GOD. By Florence Mary Fitch. 

An outstanding book about the three great religions 
of democracy which will help children to understand 
and respect the different ways people worship God. 
Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co. $2.00. 

By Francis J. Brown and Joseph Slabey Roucek (Edi- 
tors) . 

This is a compendium of reports, by experts, on the 
different foreign groups in the United States. It col- 
lates and comments on material not easily found else- 
where. An investigation of all American minority 
groups which brings a fuller realisation of their con- 
tributions and just place in American society. Prentice 


An attempt to help high school students become 
aware of their prejudices; to understand the nature, 
origin, and effect of prejudices; and to suggest activities 
which can help to reduce them. Harper & Brothers. 


Clarence I. Chatto and Alice L. Halligan. 

A complete and official account of what one city, 
Springfield, Massachusetts, has done to develop demo- 
cratic citizenship through the schools and community 
agencies. Barnes & Noble, Inc. $2.75. 


A B Cs OF SCAPEGOATING. Foreword by Gordon 
W. Allport. 

Psychological examination of the pathology of un- 
warranted aggression. Scholarly, abstract presentation 
lightened by examples prepared by a Harvard psycho- 
logist's seminar. Central YMCA College, Chicago, 
1944. 72 pp. 25 cents. 


A fact-filled pamphlet dealing primarily with Jewish 
contributions to American civilization. Anti-Defama- 
tion League of B'nai B'rith, Chicago, n.d. 31 pp. 10 

Everett R. Clinchy and Sterling W. Brown. 8 pp. 3 

Introduction to intercultural education for public, 
parochial and church school teachers, but also useful 
to others. National Conference of Christians and Jews. 

By John H. Elliott. 48 pp. 25 cents. 

Written to help young people in the human engi- 


neering problem of bridging the gulfs between men of 
different religious, racial, and nationality backgrounds. 
National Conference of Christians and Jews. 

Willard Johnson. 16 pp. 1 cent. 

Amusing cartoon account of the necessity for every- 
one to respect and work with people in all groups. 
National Conference of Christians and Jews. 


The findings of the various commissions of the Inter- 
national Conference of Christians and Jews held in 
Oxford, England. 1946. 10 cents. National Conference 
of Christians and Jews. 

by Caroline Singer. 16 pp. 5 cents. 

Outlines fallacy of using "race" to refer to Aryan, 
Semitic, Hebrew or Jewish group, fallacy of a "pure" 
or "superior" race. National Conference of Christians 
and Jews. 

Sterling W. Brown. 16 pp. 5 cents. 

Housewife, teacher, social worker discuss relation of 
home, church, and school and community in rearing 
children of goodwill. National Conference of Chris- 
tians and Jews. 


Two hundred religious books selected by commit' 
tees of clergymen, educators, authors, and librarians, 
A list divided into four sections — Protestant, Catholic, 
Jewish, and Good Will. National Conference of Chris* 


tians and Jews. 27 pp. Single copy, free. In quantity, 
3 cents each. 


This pamphlet is an introduction to the scientific 
facts about race, sorting fact from fiction, sense from 
nonsense, in many of our notions about the peoples of 
the world. Friendship Press, Inc. 

Clinchy. 64 pp. 10 cents. 

Digest of Dr. Clinchy's book, "All in the Name of 
God." Presents sketch of American Protestant, Catho- 
lic and Jewish relations. National Conference of Chris- 
tians and Jews. 


"A source book of information on one of America's 
constituent groups against whom the forces of bigotry 
have been arrayed in order to serve seditious purposes." 
Facts on Jews as patriots, citizens, and employed per- 
sons. The American Jewish Committee. Sixth printing, 
completely revised. April, 1944. 80 pp. 10 cents. 


A psychologist's reflections on frustrations, tabloid 
thinking, and projection characteristic of the bigot. An 
introduction to the paranoid mental life of bigotry. By 
a Harvard social psychologist. Reprinted from The 
Commonweal, October 6, 1944. 5 pp. 3 cents. 


by Everett R. Clinchy. 98 pp. 10 cents. 

Takes up questions concerning economic, political, 
educational, and religious aspects of social changes. 
National Conference of Christians and Jews. 


A fact-packed pamphlet suitable for reference rather 
than reading at a sitting. Many dates and names. In- 
cludes cultural contributions, social-economic facts. 
Southern Regional Council, Atlanta. Rev. Ed., 1945. 
32 pp. Single copy, 10 cents. In quantity, $1.00 per 


16 mm. Sound Motion Pictures 

AMERICANS ALL. 20 mins. Rental fee. Springfield 
Plan and other NCCJ work. Apply March of Time, 
369 Lexington Avenue, New York 17, N. Y. 

ARMY CHAPLAIN. 20 mins. National Conference 
of Christians and Jews. 

DONT BE A SUCKER. 20 mins. Produced by Army 
Signal Corps. No rental fee. National Conference of 
Christians and Jews. 

GREATER VICTORY. 20 mins. 40 page film text 
available. No rental fee. Stresses cooperation among 
all faiths. National Conference of Christians and Jews. 


HOUSE I LIVE IN, THE. 8 mins. The R.K.O. fea- 
turette starring Frank Sinatra. No rental fee. National 
Conference of Christians and Jews. 

NAVY CHAPLAIN. 20 mins. Apply Navy Dept., 
Washington, D. C. No rental fee. 

ONE PEOPLE. 12 mins. Rental fee. Apply Anti- Defa- 
mation League. Animated cartoon depicts settling of 

THE AMERICAN CREED. 3 mins. A Sefenick short, 
with nine Hollywood stars. No rental fee. National 
Conference of Christians and Jews. 


NEIGHBORS. Set of kodachrome slides accompanied 
by script. No rental fee. Apply National Conference 
of Christians and Jews. 

NEIGHBORS. Set of kodachrome slides accompanied 
by script. No rental fee. Apply National Conference 
of Christians and Jews. 

In preparation: companion set on Protestantism (available 
on date to be announced). 





A self -quiz for everyone who wants to be a good American! 

A good American cannot be prejudiced. Neither 
can a truly religious person. But many of us do 
not recognise our own prejudices. Test yourself 
on this quiz. Check your answers below each ques' 
tion. When you have completed the quiz, give 
yourself 4 for each correct answer. (Be fair, 
don't look at the answers). A final score of 60 
is passing only. 76 is better. 84 is excellent. 92 or 
more means you are a person of complete good 
will — and a practicing American. 

1. Do you believe that your group is naturally more 
honest, moral or industrious than others? 

Yes No , 

2. When you don't like a person, do you associate race, 
religion or nationality with that dislike? 

Yes No 

3. When you criticize an individual, do you include refer- 
ence to race or religion in your rebuke? 

Yes No 

4. Do you ever speak unfavorably or favorably of the 
intelligence or character of a whole group of people? 

Yes. No 

5. Do you feel perfectly at ease with members of racial, 
religious or nationality groups other than your own? 

Yes No 

6. Would you vote for a Catholic presidential candidate? 

Yes No 

7. Would you vote for a Jewish presidential candidate? 

Yes No 

8. Would you vote for a Negro Congressional candidate? 

Yes - No 

9. Should all individuals be admitted to colleges, univer' 
sities and professional schools without respect to race, 
nationality or religion? 

Yes No 

10. Do you ever say, " — but he's different", when refer- 
ring to a member of some racial or religious groups? 

Yes No 

11. Should members of different races and religions marry? 

Yes. No _ 

Is not the issue 

12. Do you forgive members of your own group more 
quickly than members of other groups? 

Yes No 

13. Do you pass on to others derogatory stories about 
other groups? 

Yes No 

14. When you hear a charge against any group, do you 
accept, reject it, or try to check its veracity? 

Accept Reject 


15. Should members of all groups be admitted to any one 
social club? 

Yes. No . 

Is not the issue — . 

16. Do you think there are certain professions and jobs 
which are best fitted for any certain groups? 

Yes No 

17. Do you- think that there are any religious or racial 
groups in this country who endanger your own position? 

Yes. No 



18. Do you think that certain groups should be kept from 
living in whatever parts of your community they may 

Yes. - No _....- 

19. Do you want your children to choose their friends 
from their own racial and religious groups? 

Yes. No - 

20. Do you believe that whatever injures one group 
eventually injures your own group? 

Yes No 

21. Do you believe that you judge every person on his 
own record rather than by his group label? 

Yes No 

22. Are you aware of the propagandists who spread false 
generalizations about whole groups of people? 

Yea _ No 

23. Do you blame members of other groups, or whole 
groups, for your own troubles or for the social troubles 
of our world? 

Yes ...- No _ 

24. Do you believe that America is a land of many dif- 
ferent peoples united as one nation or a nation of one 
kind of people? 

Many peoples One kind 

25. Do members of groups other than your own irritate 

Yes. No 

26. Do you think Protestants, Catholics and Jews have 
enough in common to work together? 

Yes No 

1. No 

2. No 

3. No 


13. No 

14. Reject 

15. This is not the issue. 

4. No. Even a good ge' 16. No 

nerali^ation is generali- 17 ^ 

nation and is not true. 

5. Yes 

6. Yes 

7. Yes 

8. Yes 

9. Yes 
10. No 


18. No 

19. No 

20. Yes 

21. Yes 

22. Yes 
23: No 
24. Many people* 

11. This is not the issue. 25. No 

12. No 26. Yes 

Many people who have taken this quiz were shocked 
to learn how bigoted or un-American was their thinking 
toward their fellow citizens. 

If you, too, find you don't score well — isn't this the 
time to do something about it? To start to practice being 
a good American? Remember: racial and religious tolerance 
are the main roots of democracy . . . and a democracy can 
exist only where the individual is willing to fight for it, 
in one way or another. As an individual, there is much you 
can do . . . must do ... if America is to remain strong, 
united, free! Here's a good way to start: 


Guard yourself and your children against infection by 
racial and religious prejudice. 

Stop the peddlers of prejudice right in their tracks by 
refusing to spread rumors about those of another race, 
creed or color. 

Speak up firmly against racial or religious discrimination 

whenever it occurs ... in your home, your neighborhood, 
your business, your schools. 



1. Inter-Religious Cooperation In Great Britain* 

Discussion of Christian Jewish relations 

2. The Growth of Good Will 

Presents sketch of American Protestant, Catholic 
and Jewish relations 

3. Christians Protest Persecution* 

Nasi pogroms protested by Christians 

4. The World We Want To Live In 

Takes up questions concerning economic, politi- 
cal, educational and religious aspect of social 

5. Why We Fight* 

Issues involved in World War II 

6. Weekday Religious Education 

Summary of Ph.D. thesis discussing weekday 
religious education 

7. Freedom Justice Responsibility 

Commission reports on the first International 
Conference of Christians and Jews 

8. Primer in Intergroup Relations 

Discussion of the people making up America 
and organisations and materials dealing with 
intergroup relations. 

♦Out of print 




381 Fourth Avenue New York 16, N. Y. 

X EACHERS, religious workers, community 
leaders and others will find this pamphlet on 
the causes and cures of intergroup strife and 
hate a practical handbook. The selected bib- 
liography of teaching aids and the listing of 
national agencies working in this field will be 
particularly helpful.